The Catalogue of Spiritual Care



Ando, Michiyo, Tatsuya Morita, Tatsuo Akechi, and Takuya Okamoto. 2010. Efficacy of Short-Term Life-Review Interviews on the Spiritual Well-Being of Terminally Ill Cancer Patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 39(6): 993-1002. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.11.320.

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan, Andel Veronica Nicasio, Ravi DeSilvaa, Marit Boiler, and Roberto Lewis-Fernández. 2013. Barriers to Implementing the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview: A Qualitative Study. Cultural Medical Psychiatry. 37(3): 505–533. doi:10.1007/s11013-013-9325-z.


Ajamzibad, Hosein, Mahshid Foroughan, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Hassan Rafiey, and Maryam Rassouli. 2018. Development and validation of the elder’s spiritual health scale. Educational Gerontology. 44(12): 786-795. doi: 10.1080/03601277.2019.1565138.

Alesi, Erin R., Timothy R. Ford, Christina J. Chen, Devon S. Fletcher, Thomas D. Morel, Barton T. Bobb, and Laurel J. Lyckholm. 2015. Development of the CASH Assessment Tool To Address Existential Concerns in Patients with Serious Illness. Journal of Palliative medicine. 18(1). doi: 10.1089/jpm.2014.0053.

Allan, Blake A., and Branton Shearer. The Scale for Existential Thinking. 2012. The scale for existential thinking. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies. 31(1): 21-37. doi: 10.24972/ijts.2012.31.1.21.


Anandarajah, Gowri, and Ellen Hight. 2001. Spirituality and Medical Practice: Using the HOPE Questions as a Practical Tool for Spiritual Assessment. American Family Physician. 63: 81-88.

Artioli, Giovanna, Chiara Foà, Chiara Cosentino, Chiara Taffurelli. 2017. Integrated narrative nursing: a new perspective for an advanced assessment. Acta Biomed for Health Professions. 88: 7-17. doi: 10.23750/abm.v88i1 -S.6279.

Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth, Dorthe Gilså Hansen, Jette Ammentorp, Lars Bjerrum, Søren Cold, Pål Gulbrandsen, Frede Olesen, Susanne S. Pedersen, Jens Søndergaard, Connie Timmermann, Helle Timm, and Niels Christian Hvidt. 2017. Development of the EMAP tool facilitating existential communication between general practitioners and cancerpatients. European Journal of General Practice 23(1): 261–268.

Balboni, Michael J., Christina M. Puchalski, and John R. Peteet. 2014. The Relationship between Medicine, Spirituality and Religion: Three Models for Integration. Journal of Religious Health. 53: 1586-1598. doi: 10.1007/s10943-014-9901-8.

Balboni, Tracy A., Holly G. Prigerson, Michael J. Balboni, Andrea C. Enzinger, Tyler J. VanderWeele, and Paul K. Maciejewski. 2019. A Scale to Assess Religious Beliefs in End-of-Life Medical Care. Cancer. 125: 1527-1535. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31946.

Baldacchino Donia, R., and Anton Buhagiar. 2003. Psychometric evaluation of the Spiritual Coping Strategies scale in English, Maltese, back-translation and bilingual versions Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(6), 558–570.

Barber, Joanna, Madeleine Parkes, Helen Parsons, and Christopher C. H. Cook. 2012. Importance of spiritual well-being in assessment of recovery: the Service-user Recovery Evaluation (SeRvE) scale. The Psychiatrist. 36: 444-450. doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.111.037838.

Benito, Enric, Amparo Oliver, Laura Galiana, Pilar Barreto, Antonio Pascual, Clara Gomis, and Javier Barbero. 2014. Development and Validation of a New Tool for the Assessment and Spiritual Care

of Palliative Care Patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 47(6). doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.06.018.

Berg, Gary E., Charles G. Watson, Butch Nugent, Lee Gearhart and Mark Juba. 1994. A Comparison of Combat’s Effects on PTSD Scores in Veterans With High and Low Moral Development. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 50(5): 669-676.

Bhatnagar S, S. Noble, S.K. Chaturvedi, and J. Gielen. Development and psychometric assessment of a spirituality questionnaire for Indian Palliative Care Patients. Indian Journal of Palliative Care. 22: 9-18.

Biesecker, Barbara B., Lori H. Erby, Samuel Woolford, Jessica Young Adcock, Julie S. Cohen, Amanda Lamb, Katie V. Lewis, Megan Truitt, Amy Turriff, and Bryce B. Reeve. 2013. Development and validation of the Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS): Use in six studies of adaptation to a health condition or risk. Patient Educ Couns. 93(2). doi:10.1016/j.pec.2013.05.006.

Borneman, Tami, Rabbi Olga F. Bluman, Linda Klein, Jay Thomas, and Betty Ferrell. 2013. Spiritual Care For Jewish Patients Facing A Life Threatening Illness. Journal of Palliative Care. 29(1): 58–62.

Bowman, Elizabeth S., James A. Beitman, Oxana Palesh, John E. Pérez, and Cheryl Koopman. 2009. The Cancer and Deity Questionnaire: A New Religion and Cancer Measure. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 27(4): 435-453. doi: 10.1080/07347330903181913.

Breitbart, William, Hayley Pessin, Barry Rosenfeld, Allison J. Applebaum, Wendy G. Lichtenthal, Yuelin Li, Rebecca M. Saracino, Allison M. Marziliano, Melissa Masterson, Kristen Tobias, and Natalie Fenn. 2018. Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Psychological and Existential Distress: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients With Advanced Cancer. Cancer. 124:3231-3239. doi: 10.1002/cncr.31539.

Bryson, Ken. 2015. Guidelines for conducting a spiritual assessment. Palliative and Supportive Care. 13: 91–98. doi:10.1017/S147895151300045X.

Burke, Laurie A., Robert A. Neimeyer, Jason M. Holland, Sharon Dennard, Linda Oliver, and M. Katherine Shear. 2013. Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief: Development and Validation of a New Measure. Death Studies. 0: 1-12. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2013.810098.

Büssing A, P.F. Matthiessen, T. Ostermann. 2005. Engagement of patients in religious and spiritual practices: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK-P 1.1 questionnaire as a tool of quality of life research. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 3(53): 1-11.

Büssing, Arndt, and Harold Koenig. 2009. The Benefit through spirituality/religiosity scale – A 6-item measure for use in health outcome studies. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 38(4): 493-506.

Büssing, Arndt, Hans-Joachim Balzat, and Peter Heusser. 2009. Spirituelle Bedürfnisse von Patienten mit

chronischen Schmerz- und Tumorerkrankungen. Perioperative Medizin 1: 248. From: Büssing, Arndt, Daniela Rodrigues Recchia, Harold Koenig, Klaus Baumann, and Eckhard Frick. 2018. Factor Structure of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) in Persons with Chronic Diseases, Elderly and Healthy Individuals. Religions. 9(13). doi:10.3390/rel9010013.

Büssing, Arndt, Daniela Rodrigues Recchia, and Klaus Baumann. 2015. Reliance on God’s Help Scale as a Measure of Religious Trust—A Summary of Findings. Religions. 6: 1358-1367: doi:10.3390/rel6041358.

Butter, Eric M., and Kenneth L. Pargament. 2010. Development of a model for clinical assessment of religious coping: Initial validation of the Process Evaluation Model. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. 6(2): 175-194. doi: 10.1080/1367467021000038183.

Buzgova, Radka, Radka Kozakova, Lucie Sikorova, Renata Zelenikova, and Darja Jarosova. 2015. Development and psychometric evaluation of patient needs assessment in palliative care (PNAP) instrument. Palliative and Supportive Care. 14: 129-137. doi:10.1017/S1478951515000061.

Chan, Choi Wan, Frances Kam Yuet, Siu Ming Yeung, and Fok Sum. 2016. Holistic Health Status Questionnaire:

developing a measure from a Hong Kong Chinese population. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 14:28.

doi: 10.1186/s12955-016-0416-8.

Charzyn´ska, Edyta. 2015. Multidimensional Approach Toward Spiritual Coping: Construction and Validation of the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ). Journal of Religious Health. 54:1629-1646. doi: 10.1007/s10943-014-9892-5.

Chochinov, Harvey Max, Thomas Hassard, Susan McClement, Thomas Hack, Linda J. Kristjanson, Mike Harlos, Shane Sinclair, and Alison Murray. 2008. The Patient Dignity Inventory: A Novel Way of Measuring Dignity-Related Distress in Palliative Care.  Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 36(6). doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.12.018. 559-571.

Christo, George, and Christine Franeya. 1995. Drug users’ spiritual beliefs, locus of control and the disease

concept in relation to Narcotics Anonymous attendance and six-month outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 38: 51-56.

Clements, Andrea D., Tifani R. Fletcher, Natalie A. Cyphers, Anna V. Ermakova, and Beth Bailey. 2013.

RSAS-3: Validation of a Very Brief Measure of Religious Commitment for Use in Health Research. Journal of Religious Health. 54: 134–152. doi: 10.1007/s10943-013-9791-1.

Cole, Brenda S., Clare M. Hopkins, John Tisak, Jennifer L. Steel, and Brian I. Carr. 2008. Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psycho-Oncology. 17: 112-121. doi: 10.1002/pon.1207.

Corry, Dagmar Anne Susanne, John Mallett, Christopher Allan Lewis, and Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek. 2013. The creaitivity-spirituality construct and its role in transformative coping. Mental Health, Religion, and Culture. 16(10): 979-990. doi: 10.1080/13674676.2013.834492.

Daaleman, Timothy P., and Bruce B. Frey. 2004. The Spirituality Index of Well-Being: A New Instrument for Health-Related Quality-of-Life Research. Ann Fam Med. 2: 499-503. doi: 10.1370/afm.89.

Davison, Sara N., and Gian S. Jhangri. 2010. Existential and Religious Dimensions of Spirituality and

Their Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 1969–1976. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01890310.

Delaney, Colleen. 2005. The Spirituality Scale. Development and Psychometric Testing of a Holistic Instrument to Assess the Human Spiritual Dimension. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 23(2): 145-167.

doi: 10.1177/0898010105276180.

de Vries-Schot, Margreet R., Joseph Z.T. Pieper, and Marinus H.F. van Uden. 2012. Mature Religiosity Scale: Validity of a New Questionnaire. European Journal of Mental Health. 7: 57–71. doi: 10.5708/EJMH.7.2012.1.3.

D’errico, Gina M., John P. Galassi, Rachel Schanberg, and William B. Ware. 2000. Development and Validation of the Cancer Worries Inventory. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 17(3-4): 119-137. doi: 10.1300/J077v17n03_07.

Donizzetti, Anna Rosa, and Giovanna Petrillo. 2017. Validation of the Paranormal Health Beliefs Scale for adults. Health Psychology Open. 1-8. doi: 10.1177/205510291774846.

Dunn, Karen S. 2008. Development and psychometric testing of a new geriatric spiritual well-being scale. International Journal of Older People Nursing. 3: 161–169.

Ellison, L. 2006. A review of The Spiritual Well-Being Scale. NewsNotes, 44(1).

Emanuel, Linda, Alpert R. Hillel, and Ezekiel E. Emanuel. 2001. Concise Screening Questions for Clinical Assessments of Terminal Care: The Needs Near the End-of-Life Care Screening Tool. Journal of Palliative Medicine. 4(4): 465-473.

Exline, J. J., K.L. Pargament, J.B. Grubbs, and A.M. Yali. 2014. The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 6(3): 208-222.

Doi: 10.1037/a0036465.

Farran, C.J., George Fitchett, J.D. Quiring-Emblen, and J.R. Burck. 1989. Development of a Model for Spiritual Assessment and Intervention. Journal of Religion and Health. 28(3): 185-194.

Faull, K., and M. D. Hills. 2007. The QE Health Scale (QEHS): Assessment of the clinical reliability and validity of a spiritually based holistic health measure, Disability and Rehabilitation. 29(9): 701-716. doi: 10.1080/09638280600926611.

Fegg, Martin. 2008. The Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE). Privatinstitut für Psychotherapie.

Fetzer Institute. 1999. Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality for Use in Health Research: A Report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group.

Fishbeck, Sabine, Bernd-Oliver Maier, Ulrike Reinholz, Cornelia Nehring, Rainer Schwab, Manfred E. Beutel, and Martin Weber. 2012. Assessing Somatic, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Distress of Patients with Advanced Cancer: Development of the Advanced Cancer Patients’ Distress Scale. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine. 30(4): 339-346. DOI: 10.1177/1049909112453640.

Fisher, John. 2010. Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM. Religions. 1: 105-121. doi:10.3390/rel1010105.

Fitchett, George., and James L. Risk. 2009. Screening for Spiritual Struggle.

Fletcher, Dale. 2009. Spiritual Fitness assessment M.S.

Fletcher, Julie. 2016. Spiritual Screening in Community-Based Palliative Care by the Multidisciplinary Team. In: de Souza M., Bone J., Watson J. (eds). Spirituality across Disciplines: Research and Practice. Springer.

Frick, E., C. Riedner, M. Fegg, F.S. Haus, and G.D. Borasio. 2006. A clinical interview assessing cancer patients’ spiritual needs and preferences. European Journal of Cancer Care. 15: 238–243. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2005.00646.x.

Fry, P.S. 1984. Development of a geriatric scale of hopelessness: implications for counseling and intervention with the depressed elderly. Journal of Couns. Psychol. 31: 322-331. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.31.3.322.


Gagnong, Pierre, Lise Fillon, Marie-Anik Robitaille, Michele Girard, Francois Tardig, Jean-Philippe Cochrane, Joanie Le Moignan Moreau, and William Breitbart. 2015. Cognitive–existential intervention to improve existential and global quality of life in cancer patients: A pilot study. Palliative Support Care. 13(4): 981–990. doi:10.1017/S147895151400073X.

Galchutt, Paul. 2013. A Palliative Care Specific Spiritual Assessment: How this story evolved. OMEGA. 67(1-2): 79-85. doi:

Galek, Kathleen, Kevin J. Flannelly, Adam Vane, and Rose M. Galek. 2005. Assessing a Patient’s Spiritual Needs. A Comprehensive Instrument. Holist Nurs Pract. 19(2): 62-69.

Gaur, Kusum Lata, and Mahesh Sharma. 2014. Measuring Spiritual Health: Spiritual Health Assessment Scale (SHAS). International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 3(3): 63-67.

Gauthier, Donna M., and Robin D. Froman. 2001. Preferences for Care Near the End of Life: Scale Development and Validation. Research in Nursing & Health. 24: 298-306.

Goldzweig, Gil, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Amichay Meirovitz, Michal Braun, Ayala Hubert, and Lea Baider. 2009. Agents of support: psychometric properties of the Cancer Perceived Agents of Social Support (CPASS) questionnaire. Psycho-Oncology. doi: 10.1002/pon.1668.

Gomez, Rapson, and John W. Fisher. 2002. Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences. 35: 1975–1991.  doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00045-X.

Gordon, Sarah E., Pete M. Ellis, Richard J. Siegert, and Frank H. Walkey. 2013. Development of a Self-Assessed Consumer Recovery Outcome Measure: My Voice, My Life. Adm Policy Ment Health. 40:199–210. doi: 10.1007/s10488-012-0417-9.

Govier, Ian. 2000. Spiritual care in nursing: a systematic approach. Nursing Standard. 14(17): 32-36.

Grant, Marcia, Betty Ferrell, Grace Dean, Gwen Uman, David Chu, and Robert Krouse. 2004. Revision and psychometric testing of the City of Hope Quality of Life–Ostomy Questionnaire. Quality of Life Research. 13: 1445–1457.

Gregorio, Sharla Wells-Di, Emily K. Porensky, Matthew Minotti, Susan Brown, Janet Snapp, Robert M. Taylor, Michael D. Adolph, Sherman Everett, Kenneth Lowther, Kelly Callahan, Devita Streva, Vicki Heinke, Debra Leno, Courtney Flower, Anne McVey, and Barbara Lee Andersen. 2013. The James Supportive Care Screening: integrating science and practice to meet the NCCN guidelines for distress management at a Comprehensive Cancer Center. 2001-2008. doi: 10.1002/pon.3256.

Groves, Karen. 2014. Guidelines for Spiritual Care in Palliative Care. Cheshire and Merseyside Palliative and End of Life Care Network Standards and Guidelines for Spiritual Care in Palliative Care.

Groves, Richard, and Mary Groves. 1998. Background for the Spiritual Health Assessment Tool.

Hall, Todd W., and Keith J. Edwards. 2002. The Spiritual Assessment Inventory: A Theistic Model and Measure for Assessing Spiritual Development. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 41(2): 341–357.

Hatch, Robert L. Mary Ann Burg, Debra S. Naberhaus, and Linda K. Hellmich. 1998. The Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale. Development and Testing of a New Instrument. Journal of Family Practice. 46: 476-486.

Hamilton, Jill B., Jamie L. Crandell, J. Kameron Carter, and Mary R. Lynn. 2010. Reliability and Validity of the Perspectives of Support From God Scale. Nursing Research. 59(2): 102–109.

Hearn, Julie, and Irene J Higginson. 1999. Development and validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care: the palliative care outcome scale. Quality in Health Care. 8: 219–227.

Hermann, Carla P. 2006. Development and Testing of the Spiritual Needs Inventory for Patients Near the End of Life. Oncology Nursing Forum. 33(4). doi: 10.1188/06.ONF.737-744.

Herth, K. (1988/1991). Development and refinement of an instrument to measure hope. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 5(1), 39–51.

Highfield, Martha Farrar. 1992. Spiritual health of oncology patients: nurse and patient perspectives. Cancer Nursing. 15(1): 1-8.

Hodge, David R. 2001. Spiritual Assessment: A Review of Major Qualitative Methods and a New Framework for Assessing Spirituality. Social Work. 46(3).

Hodge, David R. 2006. A Template for Spiritual Assessment: A Review of the JCAHO Requirements and Guidelines for Implementation. Social Work. 51(4): 317-326.

Hodge, D. R. 2003. The Intrinsic Spirituality Scale: A new six-item instrument for assessing the salience of spirituality as a motivational construct. Journal of Social Service Research. 30: 41–61. doi: 10.1300/J079v30n01_03.

Hodge, David R. 2013. Implicit Spiritual Assessment: An Alternative Approach for Assessing Client Spirituality. National Association of SocialWorkers. 58(3): 223-230. doi: 10.1093/sw/swt019.

Hoffert, Donna, Christine Henshaw, and Nyaradzo Mvududu. Enhancing the Ability of Nursing Students to Perform a Spiritual Assessment. Nurse Educator. 32(2): 66-72.

Holland, Jimmie C., Kathryn M. Kash, Steven Passik, Melissa K. Gronert, Antonio Sison, Marguerite Lederberg, Simcha M. Russak, Lea Baider, and Bernard Fox. 1998. A Brief Spiritual Inventory for use in Quality of Life Research in Life-Threatening Illness. PsychoOncology. 7: 460-469.

Holt, Cheryl L., Lee Caplan, Emily Schulz, Victor Blake, Vivian L. Southward, and Ayanna V. Buckner. 2009. Development and validation of measures of religious involvement and the cancer experience among African Americans. Journal of Health Psychology. 14(4): 525-535. doi:10.1177/1359105309103572.

Hooker, Stephanie A., Kaile Ross, Kevin S. Masters, Crystal Park, Amy E. Hale, Larry A. Allen, and David B. Bekelman. 2017. Denver Spirited Heart: Mixed Methods Pilot Study of a Psychospiritual Intervention for Heart Failure Patients. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 32(3): 226–235. doi:10.1097/JCN.0000000000000337.

Horton, Gail E., and Naelys Luna. 2015. Spirituality in the treatment of substance use disorders: Proposing the Three-legged Stool as a model for intervention. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work. 35(3): 179-199. doi: 10.1080/15426432.2015.1067585.

Howden, Judy W. 1993. Development and psychometric characteristics of the Spirituality Assessment Scale. Dissertation Abstracts International. 54(1-B) 166.

Hungelmann, Joann, Eileen Kenkel-Rossi, Loretta Klassen, and Ruth Stollenwerk. 1996. Focus on Spiritual Well-Being: Harmonious Interconnectedness of Mind-Body-Spirit Use of the JAREL Spiritual Well-Being Scale Assessment of spiritual well-being is essential to the health of individuals. Geriatric Nursing. 17:262-6.

Hunt, John, Mark Cobb, Vaughan L. Keeley, and Sam H. Ahmedzai. The quality of spiritual care – developing a standard. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 9(5): 208-215.

Idler, Ellen L. Marc Musick, Christopher G. Ellison, Linda K. George, Neal Krause, Marcia Ory, Kenneth I. Pargament, Lynda H. Powell, Lynn Underwood, and David Williams. 2001. Measuring Multiple Dimensions of Religion and Spirituality for Health Research: Conceptual Background and Findings from the 1998 General Social Survey. GSS Topical Report. No. 33.

Ironson, Gail, George F. Solomon, Elizabeth G. Balbin, Conall O’Cleirigh, Annie George, Mahendra Kumar, David Larson, and Teresa E. Woods. The Ironson–Woods Spirituality/Religiousness Index Is Associated With Long Survival, Health Behaviors, Less Distress, and Low Cortisol in People With HIV/AIDS. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 24(1): 34-48.

Jim, Heather S., Jason Q. Purnell, Susan A. Richardson, Deanna Golden-Kreutz, and Barbara L. Andersen. 2006. Measuring meaning in life following cancer. Qual Life Res. 15(8): 1355-1371.

Johnson, C., N. Aaronson, J.M. Blazeby, a. Bottomley, P. Fayers, P., M. Koller, and T. Young, on behalf of the EORTC Quality of Life Group. 2011. Guidelines for developing questionnaire modules (4th edn). Brussels:


Kass, Jared D., and Lynn Kass. Building Siritual Foundations for a Resilient Worldview: Index of Coure Spiritual Experiences. 1989. Behavioral Health Initiative Institute for Psychospiritual Maturation.

Khalaf, Dany R., Sani A.A. Hlais, Ramzi S. Haddad, Chantal M. Mansour, Antoine J. Pelissolo and Wadih J. Naja. 2014. Developing and testing an original Arabic religiosity scale. Middle East Current Psychiatry. 21:127–138.


Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh, Abbas Heydari, Fatemeh Heshmati Nabavi, Seyed RezaMazlom, Mahdi Ebrahimi, and Habibollah Esmaili. 2017. Development of Islamic Spiritual Health Scale (ISHS). JPMA. 67: 386-397.

King, D.E. Spirituality and medicine. 2002. In Mengel, M.B. W.L. Holleman, and S.A. Fields (eds). Fundamentals of Clinical Practice: A textbook on the patient, Doctor, and Society. NY Plenum: 651-659.


King, Michael, P. Speck, and A. Thomas. The Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs. Development and standardization. Psychological Medicine. 25: 1125-1134.

King, Michael, Louise Jones, Kelly Barnes, Joseph Low, Carl Walker, Susie Wilkinson, Christian Mason, Juliette Sutherland, and Adrian Tookman. 2006. Measuring spiritual belief: development and standardization of a Beliefs and Values Scale. Psychological Medicine. 36: 417–425. doi:10.1017/S003329170500629X.

Kobylarz F.A., J.M. Heath, R.C. Like. 2002. The ETHNICS Mnemonic: A Framework for Culturally Appropriate Care. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 50: 1582-1589.

Koenig, Harold G. 2002. Spirituality in Patient Care: Why, How, When, and What. Templeton Foundation Press. ISBN: 978-1-59947-117-7.

Koenig, Harold G, and Arndt Büssing. 2010. The Duke University Religion Index (Durel): A Five-Item Measure for Use in Epidemological Studies. Religions. 1: 78-85; doi:10.3390/rel1010078.

Koenig, H.G., F. Al Zaben, D.A. Khalifa. 2014. Measures of religiosity. In Measures of personality and social psychological constructs. G.J. Boyle et al. (eds.): 530–561.

Koszycki, Diana, Kelley Raab, Fahad Aldosary, and Jacques Bradwejn. 2010. A Multifaith Spiritually Based Intervention for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Trial. Journal of CLinical Psychology. 66(4): 430-441. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20663.

Kouloulias, Vassilis, John Kokakis, Nikolaos Kelekis, and John Kouvaris. 2017. A New Questionnaire (QRFPC25) Regarding the Religiosity and Spirituality in People with Life-Threatening Disease: Reliability and Validity in a Population of Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Religious Health. 56: 1137–1154. doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0310-z.

Kreitzer, Mary Jo, Cynthia R. Gross, On-anong Waleekhachonloet, Maryanne Reilly-Spong,and Marcia Byrd. 2009. The Brief Serenity Scale: A Psychometric Analysis of a Measure of Spirituality and Well-Being. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 27(1): 7-16. doi 10.1177/0898010108327212.


Ku, Ya-Lie, Shih-Ming Kuo, Ching-Yi Yao. 2010. Establishing the validity of a spiritual distress scale for cancer patients hospitalized in southern Taiwan. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 16(3): 133-137.

Kuhn, C.C. 1988. A spiritual inventory of the medically ill patient. Psychiatric Medicine. 6(2): 87-100.

LaRocca-Pitts, Mark. 2012. FACT, A Chaplains Tool for Assessing Spiritual Needs in an Acute Care Setting. Chaplaincy Today. 28(1).

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Levine, Ellen G., Stephen Vong, and Grace J. Yoo. 2015. Development and Initial Validation of a Spiritual Support Subscale for the MOS Social Support Survey. Journal of Religious Health. 54: 2355-2366. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0005-x.

Lillis, Jason, Elizabeth Gifford, Keith Humphreys, and Rudolf Moos. Assessing spirituality/religiosity in the treatment environment: The Treatment Spirituality/Religiosity Scale. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 35: 427–433. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.02.002.

Lo, C., T. Panday, J. Zeppieri, A. Rydall, P. Murphy-Kane, C. Zimmermann, G. Rodin. Preliminary psychometrics of the Existential Distress Scale in patients with advanced cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care. (26): e12597. doi: 10.1111/ecc.12597.

MacKinlay, Elizabeth, and Corinne Trevitt. 2010. Living in aged care: Using spiritual reminiscence

to enhance meaning in life for those with dementia. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 19: 394–401 doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2010.00684.x.

Marie Curie Cancer Care. 2004. Spiritual and Religious Care Competencies for Specialist Palliative Care.

Masso, Malcolm, Samuel Frederic Allingham, Claire Elizabeth Johnson, Tanya Pidgeon, Patsy Yates, David Currow, and Kathy Eagar. 2016. Palliative Care Problem Severity Score: Reliability and acceptability in

a national study. Palliative Medicine. 30(5): 479-485. doi: 10.1177/0269216315613904.

Mateo-Ortega, Dolors, Joaquín T. Limonero, Jorge Maté-Méndez, Elba Beas, Jesús González-Barboteo, Elisabeth Barbero, Sara Ela, and Xavier Gómez-Batiste. 2019. Development of a tool to identify and assess

psychosocial and spiritual needs in end-of-life patients: The ENP-E scale. Palliative and Supportive Care. 17: 441-447. doi: 10.1017/S1478951518000652.

Maugans, Todd A. 1996. The SPIRITual History. Archive of Family Medicine. 5: 11-16.

McBride, J.L., L. Pilkiington, and G. Arthur. 1998. Development of brief pictorial instruments for assessing spirituality in primary care. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. 21(4):53-61. doi 10.1097/00004479-199810000-00004.

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McSherry, Wilfred. 2006. The principal components model: a model for advancing spirituality and spiritual care within nursing and health care practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 15: 905-917. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01648.x.

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